There is little direct filiation between the Portuguese of today and the early tribes who inhabited this region, although the Portuguese long considered themselves descendants of the Lusitanians, a Celtic people who came to the area after 1,000 BC. The Lusitanians had their stronghold in the Serra da Estrela. Under Viriatus (2nd century BC) and under Sertorius (1st century BC), they stoutly resisted the Romans. Other tribes, such as the Conii in Algarve, submitted more readily. Julius Caesar and Augustus completed the Roman conquest of the area, and the province of Lusitania thrived. Roman ways were adopted, and it is from Latin that the Portuguese language is derived.
At the beginning of the 5th century AD, the whole Iberian Peninsula was overrun by Germanic invaders; the Visigoths eventually established their rule, but in the north the Suevi established a kingdom that endured until late in the 6th century, when they were absorbed by the Visigoths. Present-day Algarve was part of the Byzantine Empire during the 6th and 7th centuries. In 711 the Visigoths were defeated by the Moors, who conquered the whole peninsula except for Asturias and the Basque Country. Muslim culture and science had a great impact, especially in the south. Religious toleration was practiced, but a large minority converted to Islam.
The Birth of Portugal
It was during the long period of the Christian reconquest that the Portuguese nation was created. The kings of Asturias drove the Moors out of Galicia in the 8th century. Ferdinand I of Castile entered Beira and took the fortress of Viseu and the city of Coimbra in 1064. Alfonso VI of Castile obtained French aid in his wars against the Moors. Henry of Burgundy married an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VI and became (1095?) count of Coimbra and later count of Portucalense. Henry’s son Alfonso Henriques, wrested power (1128) from his mother and maintained the independence of his lands. After a victory over the Moors in 1139, he began to style himself Alfonso I, king of Portugal. Spain recognised Portugal’s independence in 1143 and the Pope did so in 1179. Alfonso’s long reign (1128-85) was an important factor in Portugal’s attainment of independence.
Alfonso’s successors were faced with the tasks of recapturing Alentejo and Algarve from the Moors and of rebuilding the areas devastated by the long wars. There was conflict with other Portuguese claimants and between the kings and powerful nobles, and there was continual strife between the crown and the church over land and power. Until the late 13th cent. the church was victorious, winning inviolability for ecclesiastic law as well as exemption from general taxation. Sancho I (1185-1211) captured the Moorish capital of Silves but could not hold it. Alfonso II (1211-23) summoned the first Cortes (council to advise the king). After Sancho II (1223-48) was deposed, Alfonso III (1248-79) took (1249) Algarve and thus consolidated Portugal. In Alfonso’s reign the towns gained representation in the Cortes.
Era of Expansion
The reconquest and resettlement aided local liberties, since forais (charters) guaranteeing municipal rights were granted in order to encourage settlement. As former serfs became settlers, serfdom declined (13th century), but in practice many servile obligations remained. Alfonso’s son Diniz (1279-1325) attempted to improve land conditions. He also established a brilliant court and founded the university that became the University of Coimbra. The reign of his son, Alfonso IV, is remembered chiefly because of the tragic romance of Inés de Castro, the mistress of Alfonso’s son, Peter (later Peter I; 1357-67); to avenge her fate, Peter, on his succession, had two of her murderers executed. Ferdinand I (1367-83) indulged in long Castilian wars. Ferdinand’s heiress was married to a Castilian prince, John I of Castile; after the death of Ferdinand, John claimed the throne.
The Portuguese, largely due to the efforts of Nun’Álvares Pereira, defeated the Castilians in the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) and established John I, a bastard son of Peter, as king. At this time began the long alliance of Portugal with England. John founded the Aviz dynasty and his reign (1385-1433) commenced the most glorious period of Portuguese history. Portugal entered an era of colonial and maritime expansion. The war against the Moors was extended to Africa, and Ceuta was taken. Under the aegis of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese ships sailed out along the coast of Africa. The Madeira Islands and the Azores were colonised. Duarte (1433-38) failed to take Tangier, but his son Alfonso V (1438-81) succeeded (1471) in doing so.