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Indonesia Country Profile

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    The world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military accountable for human rights violations, and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia’s national legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor – now under UN administration – has yet to be formally established.


    Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

    Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

    total: 1,919,440 sq km
    land: 1,826,440 sq km
    water: 93,000 sq km

    Area – comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

    Land boundaries: total: 2,602 km

    Border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

    Coastline: 54,716 km

    Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
    territorial sea: 12 NM

    Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

    Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

    Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

    Land use:
    arable land: 10%
    permanent crops: 7%
    permanent pastures: 7%
    forests and woodland: 62%
    other: 14% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes

    Environment – current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

    Environment – international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

    Geography – note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


    Population: 228,437,870 (July 2001 est.)

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.26% (male 35,144,702; female 33,973,879)
    15-64 years: 65.11% (male 74,273,519; female 74,458,291)
    65 years and over: 4.63% (male 4,641,816; female 5,945,663) (2001 est.)

    Population growth rate: 1.6% (2001 est.)

    Birth rate: 22.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

    Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

    Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

    Infant mortality rate: 40.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 68.27 years
    male: 65.9 years
    female: 70.75 years (2001 est.)

    Total fertility rate: 2.58 children born/woman (2001 est.)

    HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

    HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 52,000 (1999 est.)

    HIV/AIDS – deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)

    Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s)
    adjective: Indonesian

    Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

    Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

    Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 83.8%
    male: 89.6%
    female: 78% (1995 est.)


    Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
    conventional short form: Indonesia
    local long form: Republik Indonesia
    local short form: Indonesia
    former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

    Government type: republic

    Capital: Jakarta

    Administrative divisions: 27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular – propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular – daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note – the province of Irian Jaya may have been divided into two new provinces – Central Irian Jaya and West Irian Jaya; with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) may become the key administrative units

    note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia’s national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor is under UN administration pending its formal independence

    Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

    National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

    Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
    Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

    Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president and vice president elected separately by the 700-member People’s Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; election last held 20 and 21 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
    election results: Abdurrahman WAHID elected president, receiving 373 votes to 313 votes for MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected vice president, defeating Hamzah HAZ; vote totals NA

    note: the People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

    Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)
    election results: percent of vote by party – PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party – PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature)

    Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Matori Abdul DJALIL, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]

    Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

    International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

    Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red


    Economy – overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic problems, stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. Growth of 4.8% in 2000 is not sustainable, being attributable to favorable short-term factors, including high world oil prices, a surge in nonoil exports, and increased domestic demand for consumer durables.

    GDP: purchasing power parity – $654 billion (2000 est.)

    GDP – real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

    GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $2,900 (2000 est.)

    GDP – composition by sector:
    agriculture: 21%
    industry: 35%
    services: 44% (1999 est.)

    Population below poverty line: 20% (1998)

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.6%
    highest 10%: 30.3% (1996)

    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000 est.)

    Labor force: 99 million (1999)

    Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)

    Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)

    revenues: $26 billion
    expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

    Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism

    Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

    Electricity – production: 78.674 billion kWh (1999)

    Electricity – production by source:
    fossil fuel: 80.36%
    hydro: 14.63%
    nuclear: 0%
    other: 5.01% (1999)

    Electricity – consumption: 73.167 billion kWh (1999)

    Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (1999)

    Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (1999)

    Agriculture – products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

    Exports: $64.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

    Exports – commodities: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber

    Exports – partners: Japan 21%, US 14%, Singapore 10%, South Korea 7%, Netherlands 3%, Australia 3%, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan (1999 est.)

    Imports: $40.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

    Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

    Imports – partners: Japan 12%, US 12%, Singapore 10%, Germany 6%, Australia 6%, South Korea 6%, Taiwan, China (1999 est.)

    Debt – external: $144 billion (2000 est.)

    Economic aid – recipient: $43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)

    Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

    Currency code: IDR

    Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar – 10,000 (January 2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996)

    Fiscal year: calendar year; note – previously was 1 April – 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year


    Telephones – main lines in use: 5,588,310 (1998)

    Telephones – mobile cellular: 1.07 million (1998)

    Telephone system:
    general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
    domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
    international: satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

    Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

    Radios: 31.5 million (1997)

    Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)

    Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)

    Internet country code: .id

    Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)

    Internet users: 400,000 (2000)


    total: 6,458 km
    narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

    total: 342,700 km
    paved: 158,670 km
    unpaved: 184,030 km (1997)

    Waterways: 21,579 km total

    note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

    Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

    Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya

    Merchant marine: total: 609 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,698,157 GRT/3,723,933 DWT

    Ships by type: bulk 36, cargo 357, chemical tanker 10, container 25, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 117, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 5 (2000 est.)

    Airports: 453 (2000 est.)

    Airports – with paved runways: total: 136
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
    914 to 1,523 m: 44
    under 914 m: 37 (2000 est.)

    Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 317
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 28
    under 914 m: 283 (2000 est.)

    Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)

    International Affairs

    Disputes – international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Malaysia

    Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

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